This DNA-based parentage test uses microsatellite marker analysis to compare the DNA profile of an offspring to the profiles of possible parents. The markers reported include the 12 ISAG-recommended markers for cattle. Genotypes follow the international nomenclature standard for cattle.
Genetic variants of beta-casein, a protein of cow's milk, can be classified into two groups, A1 and A2, based on the specific amino acid in position 67 of the protein. This A1/A2 group designation may be of interest to breeders developing herds for human health benefits.
Holsteins with the Dominant Red variant have red and white coats inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. The gene underlying this coloration is independent from the other major gene (MC1R) that controls black and red color in Holstein cattle.
The Melanocortin 1 Receptor (MC1R) gene (also called Extension) controls the production of black and red pigments in the coats of domestic cattle, creating base colors that may then be further modified by other genes.